Secure coding in C and C++ - ARM

CYDCp3d_ARM
3 days
C
C++

Platform

Linux, Windows

Preparedness

General C/C++ development

Audience

C/C++ developers

Group size

12 participants

Labs

Hands-on

Outline

  • Cyber security basics
  • Buffer overflow
  • Memory management hardening
  • Common software security weaknesses
  • Wrap up

Objective list

  • Getting familiar with essential cyber security concepts
  • Handling security challenges in your C and C++ code
  • Identify vulnerabilities and their consequences
  • Learn the security best practices in C and C++

Description

Your application written in C and C++ works as intended, so you are done, right? But did you consider feeding in incorrect values? 16Gbs of data? A null? An apostrophe? Negative numbers, or specifically -232? Because that’s what the bad guys will do – and the list is far from complete.

Handling security needs a healthy level of paranoia, and this is what this course provides: a strong emotional engagement by lots of hands on labs and stories from real life, all to substantially improve code hygiene. Mistakes, consequences and best practices are our blood, sweat and tears.

All this is put in the context of C and C++, and extended by core programming issues, discussing security pitfalls of these languages.

So that you are prepared for the forces of the dark side.

So that nothing unexpected happens.

Nothing.

Table of contents

  • Cyber security basics
    • What is security?
    • Threat and risk
    • Cyber security threat types
    • Consequences of insecure software
      • Constraints and the market
      • The dark side
  • Buffer overflow
    • Assembly basics and calling conventions
      • ARM assembly essentials
      • Registers and addressing
      • Basic ARM64 instructions
      • ARM calling conventions
        • The calling convention
        • The stack frame
        • Calling convention implementation on ARM64
        • Stacked function calls
    • Memory management vulnerabilities
      • Memory management and security
      • Vulnerabilities in the real world
      • Buffer security issues
      • Buffer overflow on the stack
        • Buffer overflow on the stack – stack smashing
        • Exploitation – Hijacking the control flow
        • Lab – Buffer overflow 101, code reuse
        • Exploitation – Arbitrary code execution
        • Injecting shellcode
        • Lab – Code injection, exploitation with shellcode
      • Buffer overflow on the heap
        • Unsafe unlinking
        • Case study – Heartbleed
      • Pointer manipulation
        • Modification of jump tables
        • Overwriting virtual function tables
    • Best practices and some typical mistakes
      • Unsafe functions
      • Dealing with unsafe functions
      • Lab – Fixing buffer overflow
      • What’s the problem with asctime()?
      • Using std::string in C++
      • Unterminated strings
      • readlink() and string termination
      • Manipulating C-style strings in C++
      • Malicious string termination
      • Lab – String termination confusion
      • String length calculation mistakes
      • Off-by-one errors
      • Allocating nothing
  • Memory management hardening
    • Securing the toolchain
      • Securing the toolchain in C and C++
      • Compiler warnings and security
      • Using FORTIFY_SOURCE
      • Lab – Effects of FORTIFY
      • AddressSanitizer (ASan)
        • Using AddressSanitizer (ASan)
        • ASan changes to the prologue
        • ASan changes to memory read/write operations
        • ASan changes to epilogue
      • Stack smashing protection
        • Detecting BoF with a stack canary
        • Argument cloning
        • Stack smashing protection on various platforms
        • SSP changes to the prologue and epilogue
        • Lab – Effects of stack smashing protection
      • Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR)
        • ASLR on various platforms
        • Lab – Effects of ASLR
        • Circumventing ASLR – NOP sleds
      • Non-executable memory areas
        • The NX bit
        • Write XOR Execute (W^X)
        • NX on various platforms
        • Lab – Effects of NX
        • NX circumvention – Code reuse attacks
          • Return-to-libc / arc injection
        • Return Oriented Programming (ROP)
  • Common software security weaknesses
    • Security features
      • Authentication
        • Authentication basics
        • Authentication weaknesses
        • Case study – PayPal 2FA bypass
      • Password management
        • Inbound password management
          • Storing account passwords
          • Password in transit
          • Lab – Why is just hashing passwords not enough?
          • Dictionary attacks and brute forcing
          • Salting
          • Adaptive hash functions for password storage
          • Password policy
            • NIST authenticator requirements for memorized secrets
          • The Ashley Madison data breach
            • The dictionary attack
            • The ultimate crack
            • Exploitation and the lessons learned
          • Password database migration
            • (Mis)handling NULL passwords
        • Outbound password management
          • Hard coded passwords
          • Best practices
          • Lab – Hardcoded password
          • Protecting sensitive information in memory
            • Challenges in protecting memory
            • Heap inspection
            • Compiler optimization challenges
            • Sensitive info in non-locked memory
      • Authorization
        • Access control basics
        • File system access control
          • Improper file system access control
          • Ownership
          • chroot jail
          • Using umask()
          • Linux filesystem
          • LDAP
        • Access control in databases
        • Privileges and permissions
          • Permission manipulation
          • Incorrect use of privileged APIs
        • Permission best practices
          • Principle of least privilege
          • Principle of separation of privilege
          • Permission granting and handling
    • Code quality
      • Data
        • Type mismatch
        • Lab – Type mismatch
        • Function return values
          • Unchecked Return Value
          • Case study – #iamroot hash migration bug
          • Omitted return value
          • Returning from a [[noreturn]] function
          • Returning unmodifiable pointer
        • Initialization and cleanup
          • Constructors and destructors
          • Initialization of static objects
          • Lab – Initialization cycles
          • Array disposal in C++
          • Lab – Mixing delete and delete[]
      • Object oriented programming pitfalls
        • Inheritance and object slicing
        • Implementing the copy operator
        • The copy operator and mutability
        • Mutability
          • Mutable predicate function objects
          • Lab – Mutable predicate function object
      • Memory and pointers
        • Memory and pointer issues
        • Pointer handling pitfalls
        • Alignment
        • Null pointers
          • NULL dereference
          • NULL dereference in pointer-to-member operators
        • Pointer usage in C and C++
          • Use after free
          • Lab – Use after free
          • Double free
          • Memory leak
          • Smart pointers and RAII
          • Smart pointer challenges
          • Incorrect pointer arithmetics
  • Common software security weaknesses
    • Input validation
      • Input validation principles
        • Blacklists and whitelists
        • Data validation techniques
        • What to validate – the attack surface
        • Where to validate – defense in depth
        • How to validate – validation vs transformations
        • Output sanitization
        • Encoding challenges
        • Validation with regex
      • Injection
        • Injection principles
        • Injection attacks
        • Code injection
          • OS command injection
            • Lab – Command injection
            • OS command injection best practices
            • Avoiding command injection with the right APIs
            • Lab – Command injection best practices
            • Case study – Shellshock
            • Lab – Shellshock
          • Process control – library injection
            • DLL hijacking
            • Lab – DLL hijacking
      • Integer handling problems
        • Representing signed numbers
        • Integer visualization
        • Integer promotion
        • Integer overflow
        • Lab – Integer overflow
        • Signed / unsigned confusion
        • Lab – Signed / unsigned confusion
        • Integer truncation
        • Lab – Integer truncation
        • Case study – Wannacry
        • Best practices
          • Upcasting
          • Precondition testing
          • Postcondition testing
          • Using big integer libraries
          • Best practices in C
          • Best practices in C++
          • Lab – Integer handling best practices in C++
      • Other numeric problems
        • Division by zero
        • Working with floating-point numbers
      • Files and streams
        • Path traversal
        • Path traversal-related examples
        • Lab – Path traversal
        • Link and shortcut following
        • Virtual resources
        • Path traversal best practices
      • Format string issues
        • The problem with printf()
        • Lab – Exploiting format string
    • Time and state
      • Race conditions
        • Race condition in object data members
        • File race condition
          • Lab – TOCTTOU
          • Insecure temporary file
  • Wrap up
    • Secure coding principles
      • Principles of robust programming by Matt Bishop
      • Secure design principles of Saltzer and Schröder
    • And now what?
      • Further sources and readings
      • C and C++ resources

Pricing

3 days Session Price

2250 EUR / person

  • Live, instructor led classroom training
  • Discussion and insight into the hacker’s mindset
  • Hands-on practice using case studies based on high-profile hacks and live lab exercises
Customized Course

Tailor a course to your preferences

  • Send us a brief description of your business’s training needs
  • Include your contact information
  • One of our colleagues will be in touch to schedule a free 45 minute pre-training consultation

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